HTTP/1.1 200 OK Cache-Control: no-cache, private Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8 Date: Tue, 24 Nov 2020 10:10:50 GMT 要看tv最新域名

[X] CLOSEMAIN MENU

[X] CLOSEIN THIS SECTION

Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

最糟糕地利用社交媒体奖

Show MoreHide

可口可乐首席执行官穆泰康
穆里埃塔属于一个叫“五皇后”的黑帮,他们是加州淘金热的高潮期间,臭名昭著的土匪。虽然穆里埃塔的犯罪行为可能没有任何政治色彩,他还是随着来到加州投机的美国定居者,成了墨西哥抵抗的象征。对他而言,这可不是什么好事,而是促使政府悬赏他的人头,导致他被杀和斩首。幸运的是,班德拉斯的角色没有遭到同样的命运。
中国富豪王健林旗下拥有AMC Theaters等产业,在今年的榜单上进入了前20位。

According to exam questions and some test-takers' feedback posted online after the exam, the difficulty of the questions was moderate and hot political and social issues, such as the Long March rockets, China's foreign affairs, the Yutu lunar rover and entrepreneurial efforts by college students, were mentioned.
loan
Roth, 60, is a professor at Harvard University in Boston. Shapley, 89, is a professor emeritus at University of California Los Angeles.

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

青岛房企降价博弈“金九银十” 大开发商领跌

[aut'st?ndi?]
How has your trip to the US sofar this summer?
1999年中国航空工业第一、第二集团公司(之后两者合并为中国航空工业集团公司)的成立标志着中国开始进军商业航天领域,显示了中国迈向这一行业的绝心与意志。但实现这一雄心的脚步并不那么平坦。20年之后毫无疑问中国已经成为了大型商用航天领域的成熟玩家,将其他几国远远甩在身后,并有望打破空客和波音的长期垄断。

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

在中国永久居留的外国人在投资、购房、受教育等方面享受中国公民同等待遇。
上海软科教育信息咨询有限公司于上周三发布的2018年“世界大学学术排名”显示,中国有62所研究型大学入围这份全球500强高校榜单。
Jude Webber

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • 或许,在纽约尼克斯夺取NBA总冠军的道路上,缺失的关键就是甜瓜(安东尼的昵称)。噢,不,等等,林书豪才是他们欠缺的一环。然而,无论怎样,甜瓜不会妨碍尼克斯的冠军梦。
  • 楼市开局:明星城市房价微跌 三四线接涨价接力棒
  • 戴维皮林(David Pilling)
  • 那些做大家居的企业还好吗?
  • 市场门槛提高 住宅产业化房企关注度提升
  • At age 20, the teen prodigy of "Royals" raised the bar, marrying the massive vistas of electronic music alongside the human-scaled and handmade on her second LP, with help from co-producer Jack Antonoff.
    'Cutie and the Boxer' was hardly noticed by the movie-going public, but a list of fine films isn't a rundown of box-office triumphs. The reach of Zachary Heinzerling's debut feature-length documentary is equaled by its grasp. On the surface it's about nothing more-or less-than a troubled marriage that has somehow managed to last 40 years. Beneath the surface, then startlingly out in the open, is a history of rivalry (both husband and wife are artists), enmity, reluctant devotion and, most startling of all, enduring love.

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 市住建委:直管公房将推“申请式腾退” 可获货币补偿, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

Click to zoom

Show MoreHide

The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

陶企停产成“新常态”,供应商选“金主”步步惊心

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

智能家居场景入口拼抢,智能门即将是下一个赢家?

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

Show MoreHide

How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • 2010年最让人痴迷的东西是备受期待的iPhone,其他受关注的对象还有女演员林赛 罗韩、iPad、电视节目《欢乐合唱团》和《泽西海岸》。
    It's hard to imagine LOST without Jack Shephard as the group leader. Where would the show have been without him? Had the show's writers gotten their way, we would have learned the answer to that question. When the show was pitched to ABC, Jack Shephard's character was supposed to be killed after the pilot episode, and Kate was supposed to take on more of a leadership role in the series.
  • 7)让我来唱黑脸:想找一种婉转的批评方式?将对话转变为一场操练,你在其中扮演被孤立的一方,执行一项职能:戳穿(对方言语中的)逻辑漏洞及其攻击计划中的漏洞。你使用此条策略,一定要强调一点,千万不要在这些观点中掺杂个人情绪。
    ['k?mpleks]
    The total amount of remittances, which is estimated to reach $450 billion in 2017, has risen by more than 50 percent in the past decade, IFAD said.
    市场已经做出了回应:2014年9月份的工作空缺岗位在过去14年里达到了最高的水平,还有另一个能说明问题的数字人们辞职的速度达到了过去五年里的新高,调查显示人们辞职后通常立即换了一份薪酬更高的工作。
    I have never ordered an ice bucket for my red wine. In fact, come to think of it, I have never ordered an ice bucket for white wine, Champagne or dessert wine.

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 佛照子公司面临破产清算 “价格屠夫”优势尽失
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 深圳龙岗区率先探索一线城市产业用地“先租后让”供应模式

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

Show MoreHide

Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

虽然引起了一定混乱,但维密秀的执行制作人艾德·拉泽克称赞中国合作方是“令人愉快又热情的东道主”。
《维多利亚与阿卜杜勒》
A pair of post-mumblecore comedies about self-realization and its limits. Mr. Bujalski’s is a flawless screwball triangle (with Guy Pearce, Cobie Smulders and Kevin Corrigan as the sides) masquerading as an easygoing hangout with the oddballs of Austin, Tex. Ms. Piven surveys the darker territory of mental illness and daytime television. Thanks to Kristen Wiig’s astounding performance (as a lottery winner named Alice Klieg), “Welcome to Me” is a portrait of an American dreamer that is unsettling and inspiring in equal measure.
The other two manufacturers, OPPO and vivo, both achieved growth of over 100 percent, shipping 99.4 million and 77.3 million units respectively in 2016.
Hailed as one of the greatest films of all time, Taxi Driver tells the story of a depressed ex-Marine who attempts to assassinate a senator after being rejected by a woman he admires. While the titular taxi driver, Travis Bickle, lives a chaotic life filled with drug dealers and prostitutes, his story was never meant to be an unrealistic fantasy. Rather, it meant to expose the very real warning signs of a would-be gunman.
The drama and the original game have a large fan base and enjoy great popularity in China, and even elsewhere in Asia.
"I'm not really worried about it, honestly," Bryant said. "My shooting will be better."

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

Show MoreHide

Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

Show MoreHide

Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • 不存在什么人民,这是想象出来的实体。
  • 雷士照明创始人股权在网上拍卖 所得用于还债
  • 因此,看看吧。我真诚地希望你们会喜欢它们,就像我在挑选和编辑它们时那样。
    It's a bit of a lark organised by UK film critics – a gong for the top canine performance at the festival, handed out on the last Friday in the British pavilion. This year the Palm Dog went to Lucky, a Maltipoo – that's half Maltese terrier, half poodle – who plays Dixie in Miguel Gomes' six-hour epic, Arabian Nights. The prizewinner is presented with a toy bone and this year delivered a brief acceptance speech (“woof”) by video link. A jolly time was had by all but an unnamed French journalist felt that the award was “an unwanted intrusion of British silliness” in the glamorous proceedings, according to AFP. “From the French perspective, this is a bit bizarre,” he is reported to have said. “The British are weird.”
  • 环京区域楼市困局:房价快速上涨拖累产业
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • China has ample foreign exchange reserves to satisfy the demands of imports and short-term debt repayments.
    The Kings also still owe a future first (unprotected in 2019 at worst) to Philly for the honor of being able to sign Rajon Rondo, Kosta Koufos, and Marco Belinelli. Talk about a team with no damn plan.
  • A 9.1-percent drop in the annual average density of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) was seen in 74 major cities.
    Millward Brown的BrandZ估值主管Elspeth Cheung表示:“排行榜10强过去由消费品主宰。今年是科技。”
  • 伊丽莎白?泰勒和理查德?伯顿的爱情之
    国家统计局日前在其官网上声称,2017年,衡量通胀的主要指标全国居民消费价格指数(CPI)上涨1.6%,低于3%的全年控制目标。
  • Financial success and dazzling new technology alone might have been enough to earn Apple’s steely chief executive the FT’s vote as the 2014 Person of the Year, but Mr Cook’s brave exposition of his values also sets him apart.
    n. 回想,记忆,纪念品
    In the past six months alone, the Australian-born company fortified its senior executive ranks with high-profile hires from Amazon, PayPal, Google, and Twitter. It brokered a high-profile deal with Magento, the market leader, that promises to bring thousands of new customers to it. And it broke the lease on its new San Francisco office because it is hiring so quickly that it now needs triple the space it originally anticipated.
  • 安汉德
    ['?bs?lu:tli]
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 一二线城市二手房价普遍降温 仅深圳在涨 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

解读:不锈钢整体橱柜能否成为橱柜业下一桶金?

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

2017年民生热词发布:老幼受关注 安居成焦点

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

家居家装行业分化时代趋近 2017年将迎来产业创新时代

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

小户型低首付 这个小区二手房换手率高有奥秘

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • They will get more creative in 2018, including on non-cash benefits. Bank of America, for example, has just introduced a programme allowing employees of the global banking and markets unit to take a sabbatical — on full pay — for up to six weeks in a year. There are conditions: people must have been with the bank for at least a decade, and can request the time once every five years, to a maximum of three. But in a memo circulated this week, seen by the Financial Times, chief operating officer Tom Montag urged eligible employees to consider it.
  • In this May 6, 1998, file photo, Steve Jobs of Apple Computers unveils the the new iMac computer in Cupertino, Calif
  • 北京房山1244套共有产权房周四摇号

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • 单词scroll 联想记忆:
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • 今年伊始,我们曾担心特朗普准备退出世贸组织(WTO)。这种情况并未发生。如今这也不太可能在短时间内发生。
    China's economy grew last month, according to a closely-monitored PMI series - which indicated growth for the first time in four months.
    今年27岁的黑人安娜(Ana Beatriz Ferreira)是里约的一名看车员,她说:“门票那么贵,当然只有白人才买得起,进去看球怎么可能轮到我?”
  • As a point of comparison, the combined 29.1 million total from those old master sales was 34 percent less than the 44.2 million Christie’s and Sotheby’s took in at equivalent events five years ago, in December 2011.

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • tox毒,ic-有毒的
  • 家居新政频出 市场影响几何?
  • In 2008, Janah talked to a call center worker from Dharavi, India, the largest slum in South Asia, while working as a consultant. The worker said there were millions of unemployed villagers as talented as he was. "I thought, 'What if outsourcing could generate a few dollars for billions of people, rather than billions of dollars for a wealthy few'" Janah says. She went on to launch Samasource, a tech platform that connects impoverished women and youth with large corporations like Google, LinkedIn, and Microsoft to complete digital projects. To date, the non-profit has helped over 16,000 people rise above the poverty line and it recently launched SamaUSA, a domestic program for low-income students living in San Francisco.

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 缴个税或可享受 房贷利息扣除 利好年轻购房者
  • Household substance abuse
  • 板式定制家具 在拉萨家居建材定制中一枝独秀
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

2015年快捷酒店家具产业产值将超汽车业

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 北京发布大风蓝色预警信号 预计前半夜有8级阵风
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 上半年北京房产市场回暖 二手房成交量同比增长93%
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

The below are 5 companies that stand out from the rest and are startups to watch in 2014.

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

The paper quoted a number of students from the incoming class, who had a range of responses, including two who said it was the right approach to withdraw the offers. "I do not know how those offensive images could be defended," one student said.
1.Rain Man
8. 赤脚能够提高记忆力
总体来看,36%的人相信末日论,而63%的人相信是气候变化的结果。
The remaining of the top 10 were the University of Luxembourg (second), Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (fourth), University of Geneva (fifth), ETH Zurich - Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich (seventh), University of St. Gallen (eighth), National University of Singapore (ninth) and Imperial College London (10th).
鹈鹕一直在费力的吸引并留下自由球员,他们必须在这个夏天留下朱-霍勒迪,考辛斯的家乡在附近的阿拉巴马,而且他和安东尼-戴维斯是密友,同时,多个令人沮丧和伤病困扰的赛季让鹈鹕一直在失败的循环中摇摆。
Right now, she's focusing on her modeling career, but also hopes to branch out into acting.
智能衣服挂钩
它把孩子的重量从您的后背转移到肩膀和腰腹部。
PRICE PER SQUARE FOOT: $310

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

我国住房租赁市场痛点难除 80%以上为虚假信息

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • 50个最优秀的“无工作经验要求”项目的所有毕业生中,三分之一以上毕业于英国的商学院。英国的商学院还吸引了近一半的女学生以及近一半的国际学生。实际上,2014年一个英国“无工作经验要求”金融硕士项目招收的学生中,有94%来自海外。这些学生当中约有85%来自欧洲经济区(European Economic Area)以外,55%来自中国内地。
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • “微博等新媒体让每个人都拥有了发言平台,如果你不能直面批评,与百姓合作,是不能做好工作的。”
  • 2016年涂料企业经营策略设计四法:趁势突围 稳中求胜
  • 还记得《类人猿行动》吗.这是一部被众人忽略的2016年早些时候的电影,由杰米.多南和斯里安.墨菲担任主演,讲述了对希特勒身边的三把手、党卫队将军莱因哈德.海德里希进行的一次失败暗杀。《行动代号:猿人》也尝试讲述这一故事,杰克.莱诺和奥康奈尔将在片中饰演密谋的士兵,而罗莎曼德.派克和米娅.华希科沃斯卡是他们片中的感情对象,杰森.克拉科则饰演他们的刺杀目标。
  • 双12促销声音渐起 家居建材业能否得利?
  • 亚瑟小子(Usher),《擅长接吻的人》(Good Kisser),RCA

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 得邦照明之后 下一个IPO会是哪家LED企业?
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • Nothing tops the insensitivity and stupendous lack of awareness as Lohan's insensitive post five months ago.
  • The data was released to encourage the adoption of stronger passwords. Mr Slain added:"As always, we hope that with more publicity about how risky it is to use weak passwords, more people will start taking simple steps to protect themselves by using stronger passwords and using different passwords for different websites."

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

开发商购房者抢滩二线城市:一个抢地一个抢房

View All Footnotes