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中国木门绿色制造研讨会:是龙是虫就看如何升级

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 救市效果初显 9月30个典型城市成交创年内最高 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

门窗“触网”勿盲目 借“众筹+众创”把握市场

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

该调查基于160多项指标的统计数据,包括衣食、家政服务、交通和公用设施的花费。
● “佛罗里达一男子在毒品实验室放屁引发火灾,后死于爆炸”
Denmark, for instance, is 88 percent white Danish today — hardly a majority in jeopardy. But a generation ago, in 1980, it was 97 percent white. The anti-immigrant Danish People’s Party is now the second-largest party in the Danish Parliament. In Germany, where the foreign-born population shot up by approximately 75 percent between 2011 and 2015, the anti-immigrant, populist Alternative for Germany party is now drawing record support.
STEP 2: STIM
[stik]
印度梅加拉亚邦——《孤独星球》上说:“梅加拉亚邦这种平静的状态不会维持太久的,在寻求刺激的人群占领卡西山之前赶紧去那里吧!”照片上拍摄的是乞拉朋齐瀑布,它是印度最高的飞瀑,高达340米。
[iks'p?nn]

If you plan to visit Brazil for the Olympic games, and to focus on sport and having fun, Google has you covered. In anticipation of the 2016 Rio Olympics, the search giant is bringing the 'Explore' feature to Brazil Maps.
2016年奥运会和2014年足球世界杯主办城市里约打败了希腊,成为搜索次数最多的旅游目的地。
The Cems masters in management, the international programme provided through a network of 30 business schools, is ninth, down five places from 2015, when it was last ranked.
麻省理工学院(MIT)最近发表了一份白皮书。虽然该报告的题目听起来不免有些不吉利——《你是否已为供应链人才危机做好准备?》(Are You Prepared for the Supply Chain Talent Crisis?),却一语中的。这项研究表明,供应链经理需要掌握先进的技术技能,同时还得具备“高度的外交手腕”,精通总体业务战略,能娴熟地解决各类问题,要能在混沌状态中求生存。
无论你是否认为Snapchat配得上Facebook开出的30亿美元报价,有一点确定无疑:所谓的“阅后即焚”(内容被接收数秒后自动消失)社交网络拥有广阔的市场应用空间。此外,与流行的看法相反,Snapchat传播的内容不仅仅是色情短信和限制级的自拍照片,尽管它也的确是传播这类信息的最佳平台。随着主流社交平台的内容变得越来越商品化,以Snapchat为代表的“阅后即焚”平台在某种程度上重新恢复了社交媒体本应具备的趣味性和自发性。就像现实生活中的互动交流一样——创意自由流动,一般不用担心一切事情都被记录下来留给子孙后代观瞻,传遍整个世界——SnapChat提供了一个真实的、未经过滤的交流渠道。孩子们真的很喜欢它。Facebook公司自己的首席财务官上个月已正式承认,青少年使用Facebook的次数正在下降.而据坊间传言,驻足于Snapchat的青少年数量正在呈爆炸式增长。

Footnotes

  • 前8月全国棚户区改造开工465万套
  • n. 娱乐

2. Dominos. Brand love: -11% / Rank: 62
['serim?ni]
Finding Dory releases on June 17, 2016.
A New Year greeting to cheer you, my good friend.希望新年祝福给你带来欢乐,我的好朋友。
这些情况眼下一个都不存在。去年12月开始的美联储政策紧缩已经暂停。联邦基金利率(银行间隔夜拆借利率)估计低于自然利率逾一个百分点。美联储一直未作出意外之举。例如,美联储去年12月将政策利率提升25个基点之前发出了大量信号。
A new report released just last week confirmed that many of us are still using the word 'password' to access our accounts.

房产证迟几年办有哪些影响

References

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