HTTP/1.1 200 OK Cache-Control: no-cache, private Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8 Date: Thu, 03 Dec 2020 13:36:30 GMT 免费三级现频在线观看

国务院:推动火电电解铝建材等行业减量减产

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 全球房价最贵城市大盘点 没有最贵只有更贵 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

智能家居发展不明朗 但市场潜力无限

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

在甲骨文球场以77比111耻辱性地输掉的这场比赛中,科比11投仅1中,其中三分球7投1中,全场只拿下4分。在上个赛季输给圣安东尼奥马刺队的比赛中。他也曾14投1中。
pressure
The total amount of remittances, which is estimated to reach $450 billion in 2017, has risen by more than 50 percent in the past decade, IFAD said.
布雷克·格里芬的高中样子和现在相差不大。只要在高中版的格里芬上加一些头发,再增大他的肌肉,就变成了如今的格里芬。
"If reform implemented 30 years ago solved the problem of ideology, then, at present, reform is to solve the problem of interests. Reform at present is actually like cutting our own with a knife, and we all need to be determined and must strengthen our confidence." WANG YANG, NPC deputy and member of the Political Bureau of the Communist Party of China Central Committee
vt. 打斗
Meanwhile, celebrated American rapper Eminem proved to be the comeback king as he picked up the Best Hip Hop gong. The Lose Yourself hitmaker was up against the newer faces of hip hop, including Drake, Future, Kendrick Lamar and Post Malone.

单词posture 联想记忆:
In this May 6, 1998, file photo, Steve Jobs of Apple Computers unveils the the new iMac computer in Cupertino, Calif
到了20世纪下半叶,随着歧视逐渐减少(比如在大学入学方面),白人的正式特权地位也在渐渐丧失。但是工资的增长、社会安全网的扩大以及新的受教育机会有助于弥补他们的损失。大多数成年白人都比父母更富裕、更成功,他们相信子女们会过得更好。
['d?u:?lri]
上周四,中国电影资料馆副馆长张晓光表示,这些电影从来自100个国家的2000多部候选影片中脱颖而出,将于4月8日到23日期间在北京30多个电影院和大学放映。

Footnotes

  • 居住证:以法治助推新型城镇化 | 日签
  • 日食

你可以点击此处浏览全部的假新闻,这里列出的是排名前五的假新闻:
考虑到波士顿咨询集团(Boston Consulting Group)管理合伙人理查德莱塞(Richard Lesser)的第二任期将于10月结束,该公司可能也将引来变化。然而,由于该公司拒绝就其选举流程及领导人最多可以有几个任期置评,莱塞的未来尚不明确。
在全球前50名女富豪中,中国大陆的女企业家占56%。
Born to royalty in Burma, Olive Yang, who died on July 31, rejected her birthright to become a cross-dressing warlord and opium trafficker.
亚太地区票房增长了13%,是推动国际票房增长的主力,而中国贡献了整个亚太地区近半票房。
我们也不希望打贸易战。我们坚持人民币汇率形成机制的改革,保持了人民币汇率在合理均衡水平上的基本稳定。

福建印发方案 今年城市养老服务设施覆盖率将超90%

References

View Abstract