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宁夏出台22条措施绷紧工业园区“安全弦”

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 今年楼市或超2013年 涨价或在金九银十之后 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

2017新形势下 哪些门窗厂商将被淘汰出局?

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

对家长而言,整天抱着孩子非常费劲,尤其是孩子越来越大、越来越重的时候。
Price is not everything, it is true. But even the bears would agree: everything has a price.
这里并不是要给特斯拉浇一瓢冷水。它已经证明自己具有生产一款复杂、先进且外观诱人的产品的能力。但无论是特斯拉自己的内部预测,还是投资人对其股票的追捧,都基于同样一个预期,那就是特斯拉未来依然会延续最近的大热势头。这是一种危险的假设,原因如下:
Insead is distinguished not only by its one-year programme but also a strongly international culture, based upon its two campuses, and one of the most extensive and diverse alumni networks. The programme is ranked third for the international mobility of its alumni and sixth for international course experience.
Michael Smurfit Graduate Business School at University College Dublin showed the best overall progress, moving up 21 places to 48. Guanghua School of Management at Peking University returns to the ranking at 38, after missing last year due to a low response rate from participants.
高位且不断上升的美国利率可能很快成为新兴市场危机的驱动因素:此类条件可能导致新兴市场借贷成本升高,还有资本外流以及金融部门冒险意愿下降。
Will a stable and liquid bitcoin futures market develop

2014届大学毕业生工作半年后,平均月收入为3487元,较2013届的3250元、2012届的3048元有了较大增长。
Consumer prices continued to rebound from an August dip, accelerating 0.2 percentage points to 2.1 per cent year on year, bang-on analysts’ median forecast.
“图特摩斯三世是埃及新王朝最重要的法老之一。他使埃及在迦南完成了从一个地域性王国向洲际大帝国的质变。”“圣殿山筛选项目”的联合发起人和总负责人Gabriel Barkay如是说。
5. Women keep rising.
Goldie Blox is a toy company on a mission to redefine the “pink aisle” in toy stores. Men dramatically outnumber women in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) education and careers, with girls largely losing interest in these topics by age 8. Goldie Blox toys are designed to inspire future engineers by engaging girls in a way that draws on their strong verbal and storytelling skills — while still offering opportunities to build the skills that can later translate into an interest in engineering. And speaking of opportunity, how does a start-up toy company stand out against the big names that have been dominating the toy space since the beginning of time? In a savvy move, Goldie Blox recently released a video that went viral with their take on the Beastie Boys song “Girls.” Though the video was ultimately taken down, Goldie Blox did an excellent job raising awareness of the need to get more women and girls interested in STEM … and of the Goldie Blox toys.

Footnotes

  • 全国首套房贷利率维持下行 预计今年将整体稳中有降
  • 提到MeToo行动,麦高恩说:“他们都是混蛋,不是冠军,一群失败者,我不喜欢他们。”

达奇斯说:年底iphone5和迷你ipad的发布,消除了海内外制造业和乔布斯死后遗留影响的争议,这使得苹果成为年度最大的赢家。
And, men are 2.8 times more likely to use this obvious phrase than women.
The first wearable computer glasses were made by Edward Thorp and Claude Shannon in 1961. In 1968, Ivan Sutherland made the "Sword of Damocles." It was the first head-mounted computer display and an early variant of all wearable computer glasses we have today. In 1980, Steve Mann, known today as the father of wearable computing, made the "WearComp", a pair of tech-enhanced glasses that was capable of communicating wirelessly with other computers and could share videos. He continued to work on the glasses over the years, and by 1999, he had come up with a pair of glasses that looked like Google Glass, or rather, that Google Glass looks like. He called it the "EyeTap."
projected
Venezuela's government closed all crossings a year ago to crack down on smuggling along the 1378-mile (2219 kilometer) border. It complained that speculators were causing shortages by buying up subsidized food and gasoline in Venezuela and taking them to Colombia where they could be sold for far higher prices.
Forever pop's Number One rebel, Charli XCX returned with an excellent surprise mixtape.

海南房地产量价齐升 商品住宅去化期收窄

References

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