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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

凯投宏观(Capital Economics)中国经济学家朱利安?埃文斯-普里查德(Julian Evans-Pritchard)评论道:“结果是,上个月中国的贸易看起来惊人强劲。在全球需求强劲的背景下,我们预期未来数月出口还将继续表现良好。”

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It's quite an odd question, because Ireally wanted to start writing when I read lots of Stephen King stories. Hisstories were quite astonishing and interesting.
11) I often feel unhappy 0 1 2 3 4
4. 马克·特纳四重奏(Mark Turner Quartet),《天堂里的车床》(Lathe of Heaven), ECM。这是次中音萨克斯手马克·特纳13年来第一次以领队身份推出专辑,他喜欢同小号手阿维沙伊·科恩(Avishai Cohen)奏出流畅的互动,在后波普规范中发现全新意义。他的作曲中有纯粹的神秘,由乔伊·马丁(Joe Martin)担任贝斯手,马库斯·基尔默(Marcus Gilmore)担任鼓手的节奏组亦是一丝不苟。

No. Football punditry is a mug’s game. Better to have the benefit of hindsight. There have been 20 previous World Cups. Of those, Brazil (five titles) and Germany (four), are regular contenders. Home advantage helps, with host nations winning the trophy six times. But next year’s festival of football is being held in Russia, which has the lowest-ranked team in the tournament.
It's quite an odd question, because Ireally wanted to start writing when I read lots of Stephen King stories. Hisstories were quite astonishing and interesting.
6. You don’t just pass in front of the TV if i’m watching football, you better crawl on the floor.

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

我国首个儿童漆国家标准有望出台

《一名拍摄黑手党的西西里摄影师和她的“鲜血档案”》(A Sicilian Photographer of the Mafia and Her ‘Archive of Blood’)
《癌症:众病之王》(Cancer: The Emperor of All Maladies),PBS,3月30日播出。该剧由《斯科茨伯勒:美国的悲剧》(Scottsboro: An American Tragedy)与《美莱》(My Lai)的导演巴拉克·古德曼(Barak Goodman)执导,肯·伯恩斯(Ken Burns)担任执行制作人,这部六小时的剧集是根据普利策获奖书籍、悉达多·穆克吉(Siddhartha Mukherjee)医生的《众病之王:癌症传》(The Emperor of All Maladies: A Biography of Cancer)改编的。
Emma Morano

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

我们必须牢牢抓住就业这一民生之本,让人们在劳动中创造财富,在奋斗中实现人生价值。
奥巴马在该推文中引用曼德拉的话称:“没有人生来就因为他人的肤色、背景或宗教信仰而憎恨他们……”
国家统计局最近开始跟踪研究的大城市的房价数据就支持这种可能性。

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • Domestic action movie "Wolf Warrior II" was top on the list and became the country's highest-grossing film ever, raking in 5.68 billion yuan in ticket sales.
  • 津部分自媒体和中介炒作 买二手房别被忽悠了
  • Philippa Langley, a member of the Richard III Society who coordinated and helped fund the search, said she hoped a new image would emerge of the king and "the two-dimensional character devised by the Tudors will be no more".
  • 全文丨中共中央 国务院:关于坚持农业农村优先发展做好“三农”工作的若干意见
  • 营收净利双增超四成 福建阳光集团高质量发展成亮点
  • 公司确实有一个“黑名单”。不过不是真的写出来的列表,但是只要有机会,他们就想把“黑名单”上的人炒掉。如果你觉得自己常被无视,或是总是被分到些苦差事,或是老板无视你,或是调你的办公室,那么你有可能在“黑名单”上。
    7.管理多向性

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 统计局:11月CPI同比上涨2.2% 居住价格上涨2.4%, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

Click to zoom

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

2016年买房须知:专家关于楼市的8大共识

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

2月北京住宅租赁成交量环比减少 租金稳定

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • 单词commercial 联想记忆:
    自2005年首次发布这一排行榜以来的一项最重大计算方法变化是,FT现在收集校友毕业后首份工作的信息。这些数据与他们当前的工作(毕业三年后)的信息一起使用。这使得FT可以计算出他们自毕业以来的工资增长(一个新的排名指标)以及他们的职业发展。
  • authority
    On Her Majesty's Secret Service gets an honorable mention on our list of James Bond Theme songs.
    还是得作秀
    凭借这场胜利,金州勇士队追平了由1957-1958赛季的波士顿凯尔特人队创造的卫冕冠军赛季开局14连胜纪录。而勇士队也是成为在NBA历史上,仅有的五只以14胜0负开局的球队。接下来,他们将会作客丹佛,力争在周日将纪录继续保持下去。
    ['ent?praiz]

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 改革开放40年全国个体工商户增长500多倍
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 文泽渠和高教西渠 景观改造提升工程开工

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

Jamil Anderlini
4.嘘声不仅仅是个手势
现在似乎可以放心地预言,2017年余下时间会出现更多噪音、甚少进展,而这将继续对贸易和英国经济造成破坏。
始终保持廉洁本色。
With U.S. e-commerce activity approaching 10% of all retail sales, more merchants are shopping around for easy-to-use platforms that get them selling online quickly.
Oklahoma City GM Sam Presti, no stranger to deadline deals, pulled off a clean win bysending Cameron Payne, Joffrey Lauvergne and a second-round pick to Chicago in exchange for Taj Gibson and Doug McDermott.
它把孩子的重量从您的后背转移到肩膀和腰腹部。

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • 胡润估计,中国内地目前有594位身家十亿美元以上的富豪,在香港、台湾和澳门还有94位,而美国仅有535位。
  • 澳门社保调升福利津贴5.1%至5.8% 或2019年1月实施
  • 今年27岁的黑人安娜(Ana Beatriz Ferreira)是里约的一名看车员,她说:“门票那么贵,当然只有白人才买得起,进去看球怎么可能轮到我?”
    Song “Chinese Zodiac” (Lee-Hom Wang)
  • 广东质监局将抽检智能洁具产品
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • Compared with an average age of 45, 52-year-old Jack Ma is the oldest among the top 10 IT tycoons.
    However, before starting their EMBAs, there is already a wide gap in salaries, with women earning on average 15 per cent less than men, at $111,000 and $128,000 respectively.
  • 雇主因种族、肤色、性别、国籍、宗教、年龄或残疾而歧视员工属于违法行为。但美国多数州至今依然不保护LGBT群体的工作权益。苹果公司CEO蒂姆库克希望消除这种差异。11月份,库克在《华尔街日报》(Wall Street Journal )评论版对页发表了题为《平等就业对企业有益》(Workplace Equality Is Good for Business)的文章,敦促联邦立法,以免就业者因性取向而受到歧视。
    大部分原因还是全球变暖,而全球变暖主要是二氧化碳排放量上升造成的。二氧化碳是主要的人为温室气体,通过燃烧煤、石油等化石燃料产生。
  • 然而专家却在西方当前的乱象之下看到一种白人身份危机。
    17 November
  • On the occasion of the New Year, may my wife and I extend to you and yours our warmest greetings, wishing you a happy New Year, your career greater success and your family happiness.
    The government is keen to encourage lending to small and medium-sized borrowers, many of whom do not have credit histories. Analysts estimate the number of Chinese consumers who are financially active but without access to credit to be 500m.
    物理学界这一开拓性的发现已经点燃科学研究的星星之火,而他们的这项研究发展为前沿科技,也不过是时间早晚的事罢了,就像100年前我们无法想象今天的激光和电脑芯片那样,美国物理学会候选会长劳拉?H?格林在接受《纽约时报》采访时表示。
  • D型人格的人通常自尊心不足,害怕被反对。这也是他们不想向其他人敞开心扉的主要原因。
    But industry watchers say that view misses an area where China goes toe-to-toe with Western rivals in innovation: extra features that make the Chinese version more interactive and more interesting to use.
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 江西省住房和城乡建设厅:加大建筑节能改造管理力度 推动节能工作更上新台阶 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

楼市能否迎量价齐升 业内:库存高城市压力难解

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

杭州正式发布住房租赁市场试点方案

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

钢铁之后是铝 中国过剩产能出口“四处受敌”

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

携手时代中国 博鳌21世纪房地产论坛热议粤港澳大湾区城市发展力

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • A record 27,817 civil service jobs are being offered this year by central government departments and subsidiaries.
  • 节目4 小品《我要上春晚》,周炜 刘大成 石头 张尧等
  • 希凯参加2013中国国际陶瓷工业技术与产品展览会

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • Low inflation reflects weakening demand and doesn't inspire confidence about the economic shift from manufacturing to consumption, yet at the same time it should allow Beijing to enact stimulus should it seek to support the economy further .
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • 在这两个新指标方面,英国商学院的表现都优于法国商学院。在职业发展方面表现最好的英国商学院——华威商学院(Warwick Business School)在这一指标的总体排名中位居第二,高于法国在这方面表现最好的巴黎高等商学院(HEC Paris) 30个名次。在毕业后首份工作薪资与当下薪资比较方面,英国商学院校友的薪资增幅更大,为62%,法国商学院校友的薪资增幅为45%。然而,英国商学院校友的平均薪资仍低于与法国商学院校友,分别为5.5万美元和6.4万美元。
    联邦控制委员会要求修订的财政计划必须在1月底前批准,举出加西亚去年提交的部份是不现实的,并过度依赖联邦资金。加西亚拒绝提交一项修订计划,包括紧缩措施。罗塞略已经表示,他将要求延长还款期限与在2月到期的延缓偿付,目前保护波多黎各避免被愤怒的债权人诉讼。
    中国政府确定的消费者物价通胀目标为3.5%,但增长日益疲弱将令物价指数变得温和。
  • st站,立+able→能站的→稳定的

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • adj. 最初的,首要的,最好的,典型的
  • 家居以旧换新拉动力为“零”
  • 单词polish 联想记忆:

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 洋建材在中国遭遇水土不服
  • Household substance abuse
  • 市场持续低迷 家居业转型要“啃”精装房
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

10月以来调控接踵而至 楼市成交量连续两月下滑

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 成都17家房源网站被要求48小时内自查整改
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 细分市场加强互动 瓷砖小企业不“捡漏”
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

More than 430,000 students from 1,767 universities in 31 provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions across China were surveyed. Of the respondents, 89.2% had considered starting a business, with 18.2% reporting firm intentions to do so.

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

在纽约举办了多次其标志性的时装秀之后,内衣品牌维多利亚的秘密又来到伦敦、巴黎、戛纳和洛杉矶举办维密秀,而在2017年,该全球女士内衣行业巨头来到了上海。
7. Hearing Aid
Tencent has been helped by agreements to pre-install software with Chinese handset makers who sold increasing numbers of handsets abroad in recent years, particularly in emerging markets, according to Mr. Wang.
几年前,有人发明了一辆会飞的自行车,叫做"Paravelo"。称一辆自行车会飞,并不是开玩笑,而是这辆自行车真的会飞(车头有一个巨大的降落伞)。它在陆地和空中的时速分别为25千米(15英里)和40千米(25英里),可飞至1200米(4000英尺)高空。最棒的地方是什么呢?那就是你不需要有飞行驾照。Paravelo号称世界上第一辆会飞的自行车,但我们必须指出它并不是第一辆会飞的自行车。
因特尔:新员工红地毯
grant
FOYLE’S WAR (acorn.tv, Feb. 2) After nabbing the final three episodes of “Agatha Christie’s Poirot” last year, the streaming service Acorn TV scores another coup in the field of traditional British mysteries with the American premiere of this superior show’s ninth season. Starring Michael Kitchen as Christopher Foyle, a detective as honorable as he is shrewd, the series has morphed over the years from a provincial home-front cop show to a le Carré-like Cold War thriller. New episodes involve the Nuremberg trials and Britain’s role in Palestine.
想要谋杀老板的念头并不稀奇,但是当大家所讨论的老板真的死于谋杀时,就不是那么回事了。当警察来询问的时候,他们才知道,克兰斯顿兄弟俩已经辞职并骑着他们的摩托车横跨整个国家。他们俩在被证明清白之前都是嫌疑人。
2018年底石油价格会超过每桶70美元吗?
Frederickson说这样做会让你赚到一些钱,结交一些新朋友。也可以锻炼一下你在失业期间可能会生疏的一些技能,比如:做事要快,多任务同时进行,迅速而出色地回答问题等。

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

天津著名“瓷房子”被法院拍卖 1.4亿起拍

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • 会。在2018年美联储可能多次加息的情况下,新兴市场中的交易可能会波动起伏。有时可能感觉有点像2013年“削减恐慌”(taper tantrum)重演。然而,平均GDP增速将升至5%,高于去年4.7%的预测值。这主要是因为近来处境艰难的俄罗斯和巴西境况将好转。
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • That put outbound investment for October at $8.3bn, according to FT calculations based on official data, for a year-on-year fall of 26.5 per cent.
  • 防范风险 热点城市需积极遏制房价过快上涨
  • 愿明亮喜庆的新年烛光温暖一年中的每个日日夜夜,祝你欢欢喜喜度新年!
  • 李克强:政府服务必须围着市场主体和人民群众转
  • 近年来,大多数发达国家的排放量一直在逐步下降,这部分是因为不景气的经济形势,同时也是因为日益加强的气候政策。2013年,由28个国家组成的欧洲联盟(European Union)的排放量下降了1.8%,虽然德国和波兰等几个国家的耗煤量出现增加。英国、意大利和西班牙的排放量显著下降。

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 房屋卖出延迟户口迁出谁担责?
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • Apple was the only top five PC maker to see shipments grow last year, up over 6%, while Acer saw the biggest fall, of more more than 18%.
  • The Magic have bounced between average and bad, and they're currently on a downswing. Now Aaron Gordon and Nikola Vucevic are coming off the bench and Mario Hezonja is buried.

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

学生公寓供应匮乏 投资者纷纷寻找机遇

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